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Origins[ edit ] Before the s, fashion was an extensive and almost primitive process where one had to source materials like wool or leather, prepare and weave them into garments. However, the Industrial Revolution amplified the world of fashion by introducing new technology — like the sewing machine, textile machines ready-made clothing factories and mass production of clothes.
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All of this resulted in clothes becoming cheaper, easier and quicker to make. Meanwhile, localized dressmaking businesses started to emerge to cater to the middle classes, and they employed workroom employees along with garment workers who worked Zakupy Dom Automation System DFD home for meager wages.
Once the middle-class consumers got accustomed to it, they became more receptive to the idea of mass-produced clothing.
The fashion industry produced and ran clothes for four seasons a year up until the mid-twentieth century, and the designers would work many months in advance to predict what the customers would want. It was in the s and s that this method changed drastically when the young generation started to create new trends and used cheaply-made clothing as a form of personal expression. Although most fashion brands tried to find ways of keeping up with the increasing demand for affordable clothes, there was still a clear distinction between the high-end and High Street fashion.
In the late s and early s, fast fashion became a booming industry in America with people enthusiastically partaking in consumerism. Initially starting as small stores located in Europe, they were able to infiltrate and gain prominence in the American market by examining and replicating the looks and design elements from runway shows and top fashion houses and quickly reproducing and selling them at a fraction of a cost.
Nevertheless, there is some evidence that suggest the popular fashion brands that helped start the phenomenon. Amancio Ortegafounder of Zarafounded his clothing company in in Galicia and it featured products that were affordable replications of popular higher-end clothing fashions in addition to producing its own unique designs.
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Later on in Ortega opened the first retail outlet in Europe in order to sell his collections in the short run and also to integrate production and distribution in the long run. Unlike many fashion companies, Zara hardly invests in television or press promotional campaigns and instead relies on store windows to convey the brand image, spread of word-of-mouth and locating their shops strategically in areas with high consumer traffic.
In Erling Perssona Swedish entrepreneur, goes on a trip to the USA where he was greatly intrigued and impressed by the concept of efficient and high-volume production stores that he witnessed in New York. Rather it outsources its production to more than independent suppliers that are mainly located in Europe and Asia and overseen by 30 strategically located oversight offices.
At the same time it primarily depends on its state-of-the-art IT infrastructure and network to connect between the central national office and the production offices. Reacting rapidly to offer new products to meet consumer demand is crucial to this business model.
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The Zara brand name has become almost synonymous with the term, but other retailers worked with the concept before the label was applied, such as Benetton.
Cline's book Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion was one of the first investigations into the human and environmental toll of fast fashion.
Fast fashion has also come under criticism for contributing to poor working conditions in developing countries. Chang argues that the slow fashion and ethical fashion movements place too much responsibility on the consumers of fast fashion clothing, most of whom are women, to influence the industry through their consumption.
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The fast fashion market utilizes this by uniting with foreign manufacturers to keep prices at a minimum. Quick response method[ edit ] Quick Response QR was developed to improve manufacturing processes in the textile industry with the aim of removing time from the production system. Apparel Manufacturing Association initiated the project in the early s to address a competitive threat to its own textile manufactures from imported textiles in low labour cost countries.
This production short cut enables Zara to manufacture over 30, units of product every year to nearly 1, stores in 58 countries. As a result, the shortened time period improves consumer's garment choices and product availability while significantly increasing the number of per customer visits per annum.
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In the case of Rennera Brazilian chain, a new mini-collection is released every two months. Marketing creates the desire for consumption of new designs as close as possible to the point of creation. Marketing closes the gap between creation and consumption by promoting this as something fast, low priced, and disposable. The fast fashion business model is based on reducing the time cycles from production to consumption such that consumers engage in more cycles in any time period.
For example, the traditional fashion seasons followed the annual cycle of summer, autumn, winter and spring, but in fast fashion cycles have compressed into shorter periods of 4—6 weeks and in some cases less than this. Marketers have thus created more buying seasons in the same time-space.
Origins[ edit ] Before the s, fashion was an extensive and almost primitive process where one had to source materials like wool or leather, prepare and weave them into garments.
While some companies invest in advertising, fast fashion mega firm Primark operates with no advertising. Primark instead invests in store layout, shop-fit and visual merchandising to create an instant hook. Research shows that 75 percent of consumers' decisions are made in front of the fixture within three seconds. The quick turnover has increased the demand for the number of seasons presented in the stores. This Zakupy Dom Automation System DFD also increases shipping and restocking time periods.
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Cost is still the consumer's primary buying Opcje indeksu kredytowego Handel. Costs are largely reduced by taking advantage of lower prices in markets in developing countries.
In developing countries accounted for nearly seventy five percent of all clothing exports and the removal of several import quotas has allowed companies to take advantage of the even lower cost of resources. Traditionally, fashion buying cycles are based around long term forecasts that occur one year to six months before the season. A higher sell-through for the goods produced is also a result of the shortened production Zakupy Dom Automation System DFD.
Supply chain, vendor relationships and internal relationships[ edit ] Supply chain[ edit ] Supply chains are central to the creation of fast fashion. Supply chain systems are designed to add value and reduce cost in the process of moving goods from design concept to retail stores and finally through to consumption.
The selection of a merchandising vendor is a key part in the process. Inefficiency primarily occurs when suppliers can't respond quickly enough, and clothing ends up bottlenecked and in back stock.
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In an agile supply chain the principal characteristics include the sharing of information and technology. A lean supply chain is characterized as the correct appropriation of the commodity for the product. The product is first classified as "core" or "fashion".
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In comparison, long-distance suppliers are utilized for cheap, "core" items, sometimes referred to as "capsule" clothing, that are used in collections every season and have a stable forecast. Internal relationships[ edit ] Productive internal relationships within the fast fashion companies are as important as the company's relationships with external suppliers, especially when it comes to the company's buyers. Traditionally with a "supermarket" market the buying is divided into multi-functional departments.
The buying team uses the bottom-up approach when trend information is involved, meaning the information is only shared with the company's fifteen top suppliers.
The buyer must also consult with the overall design team to understand the cohesion between trend forecasting and consumer's wants.
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The close relationships result in flexibility within the company and an accelerated response speed to the demands of the market. Sustainable labour costing and efficiency dilemma in fast fashion[ edit ] Published by University of Manchester, the Working Papers of "Capturing the Gains, global summit" brings together an international network of experts from North and South. The Working Paper 14 focuses on a specific feature of buying behaviour in the UK fashion retail industry: the negotiation of a manufacturing price cut-make-trim, CMT, cost with suppliers that does not separately itemize labour cost.
This practice, tacitly supported by both buyers and suppliers, is examined against the backdrop of ongoing wage defaulting and import price deflation in the global apparel industry.
According to the International Labour Organization ILOas of there were some different PTS systems, offered by consultancies for adoption by manufacturing companies. All three forms of work measurement for arriving at a standard time should normally make provision for relaxation, contingency and special allowances.
In addition, fast fashion is responsible for nearly 10 percent of global gas Zakupy Dom Automation System DFD. Providing insight, the Ellen Macarthur Foundation released study results on fashion and suggests a new circular system. A singular t-shirt requires over 2, liters of water to make. Journalist Elizabeth L. Due to this rise in consumption, developed countries are producing more and more garments each season.
The United States imports more than 1 billion garments annually from China alone. The materials used not only affect the environment in textile product, but also the workers and the people who wear the clothes.
The hazardous substances affect all aspects of life and release into the environments around them.