In addition to terrestrial plants, New Zealand is home to many species of algae. The moas, of which there were eleven species, were large browsers, and were in turn the prey species of the giant Haast's eagle or Harpagornis eagle. Plemiona Maorysow sa rowniez waznymi zarzadcami zasobow naturalnych.
Biodiversity of New Zealand
The kauri of North Island were the largest trees in New Zealand, but were extensively logged and are much less common today. Many species of southern bull kelp are found in New Zealand. The history, climate and geology of New Zealand have created a great deal of diversity in New Zealand's vegetation types.
The main two types of forest have been dominated by podocarps and southern beech. Podocarps Podocarpaceaean ancient evergreen gymnosperm family of trees, have changed little in the last million years.
Forests dominated by podocarps form a closed canopy with an understory of hardwoods and shrubs. The forests of southern beeches, from the genus Nothofagus, comprise a less diverse habitat, with the beeches of four species dominating the canopy and allowing a single understory.
In the north of New Zealand the podocarp forests were dominated by the ancient giant kauri. These trees are amongst the largest in the world, holding the record for the greatest timber volume of any tree.
The value of this was not lost on early European settlers, and most of these trees were felled. The remaining vegetation types in New Zealand are grassland of grass and tussockusually associated with the subalpine areas, and the low shrublands between grasslands and forests. These shrublands are Strategia roznorodnosci biologicznej Nowej Zelandii by daisieswhich can become woody and 3 m high.
In addition to terrestrial plants, New Zealand is home to many species of algae.
Many species of southern bull kelp are found along the coasts of the main islands, Chatham Islands and the Subantarctic Islands. The discovery of a femur and mandibles of an extinct non-volant non-flying mammal in Otagodated at 16—19 million years old, has changed the view of New Zealand's evolutionary history, as it strongly suggests that mammals had been part of New Zealand's fauna since the break-up of Gondwana.
The fossil has been called SB mammal. It is not known when, or why, land mammals became extinct in New Zealand but there were none present on New Zealand for several million years before the arrival of humans.
The short-tailed bats from the monotypic family Mystacinidaefirst arrived in the Oligocene or before. These are unique among bats due to their terrestrial foraging habits; this has long been credited to the absence of competing terrestrial mammals, though the presence of the already terrestrial Icarops in the Miocene of Australia shows that their terrestriality evolved in the mainland, while Saint Bathans Fauna mystacine fossils co-existed with another terrestrial mammal, the Saint Bathans mammal.
Some plants have evolved with the bats and are fertilised on the ground by the bats. The long-tailed bat Chalinolobus tuberculatusa more recent arrival, is relatively common. The Miocene Saint Bathans Fauna also preserves remains of a vesper bat and several incertae sedis species.
Birds comprise the most important part of New Zealand's vertebrate fauna. It is uncertain if many birds in New Zealand are descended from Gondwanan stock, as DNA evidence suggests that even the ratites the kiwis and the moas arrived after the split from Antarctica.
DNA studies seem to indicate that the wrens are the most ancient of all passerinessplitting from the ancestral passerine stock at the time New Zealand become an isolated land mass.
In the absence of mammals, birds diversified into the niches usually filled by mammals in other ecosystems. The moas, of which there were eleven species, were large browsers, and were in turn the prey species of the giant Haast's eagle or Harpagornis eagle. Both the moas and the eagle became extinct shortly after the arrival of humans in New Zealand sometime around CE. It appears that human hunters exterminated the moa populations, which deprived the Harpagornis of its primary food source, leading to the extinction of that species as well.
New Zealand's emblematic kiwis fill the role of small foragers of the leaf-litter, and the enigmatic adzebill was a universal omnivore. The wattlebirds, Callaeidaeare a family endemic to New Zealand, but many other Strategia roznorodnosci biologicznej Nowej Zelandii Zealand birds show clear affinities to Australia, including the New Zealand pigeon and the New Zealand falconas well as various parrots, railswadersowlsand seabirds albeit often with a New Zealand twist.
The tuatara is a unique component of New Zealand's biodiversity and the only surviving Strategia roznorodnosci biologicznej Nowej Zelandii in the order Sphenodontia.
No agamas or iguanas are recorded from New Zealand; lizards are represented by geckos and skinkswhich arrived multiple times. The fossil record shows a highly diverse herpetofauna during the Miocenewith a mekosuchine crocodile and meiolaniid and pleurodire turtles being known from the Saint Bathans Fauna.
The tuatarareaching 60 cm Opcje binarne Edmonton. Frogs, which because of their intolerance for saltwater are assumed to have descended from ancestors that broke off from Gondwana, are one of the few exceptions to the rule that amphibians are never found on oceanic islands another being the frogs of Fiji.
New Zealand's few wholly freshwater fishes are derived from diadromous species. This Auckland tree wētā is about 7 cm long, excluding legs and antennae New Zealand's terrestrial invertebrate community displays strong Gondwanan affinities, and has also diversified strongly, if unevenly. There are over a thousand species of snailand many species of insect have become large and in many cases flightless, especially grasshoppers and beetles. There are, however, fewer than 12 species of ant.
The most famous of New Zealand's insects, the wētāare ground-living relatives of the crickets that often reach enormous proportions. Many endemic marine invertebrate species, particularly marine snails, have evolved in the seas surrounding New Zealand.