If you created a product that worked well and was durable, it was assumed you would have no difficulty profiting. What differentiates the company from its competitors in the eyes of customers and other stakeholders? In five forces analysis he identified the forces that shape the industry structure or environment. What are the important opportunities and risks for the organization? Myślę, że role prezesów się zmieniły. Porter described an industry as having multiple segments that can be targeted by a firm.
Apple był wówczas bliski bankructwa, Dell zaś mówił, że on na miejscu zarządu zamknąłby tę firmę. Tymczasem młody inżynier Cook z popularnej w branży firmy Compaq został wezwany na rekrutację przez Steve'a Jobsa. Sprawa sięga lat Tim Cook, urzędujący obecnie prezes firmy, wspomniał tę historię podczas wizyty na Uniwersytecie Oxford.
Scalping na Forex - strategia inwestycyjna łapania dołków i szczytów
Pewnego dnia, zupełnie niespodziewanie, Steve Jobs wrócił do Apple i zasadniczo zwolnił każdego, kto wówczas dla niego pracował. Zaczął rekrutację. Ja nigdy wcześniej go nie spotkałem. Jak wspomina Cook, był wówczas inżynierem pracującym dla wschodzącej gwiazdy branży komputerowej - firmy Compaq.
I otrzymał propozycję pracy w podupadłym Apple. Tim Cook o początkach w Apple Szczerze mówiąc ludzie, których szanowałem najbardziej, którzy najlepiej mnie znali, z których część znała sytuację w Apple chociaż pobieżnie, byli zgodni. Mówili: na proc. Opuściłbyś komputerową firmę numer 1 na świecie, firmę, która ma świetną przyszłość, i przeszedłbyś do firmy, która wypada z rynku. Tim Cook wspomniał też słowa Michaela Della, który do dziś kieruje firmą Dell.
- Tim Cook - początki w Apple
- Strategic management - Wikipedia
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- Apple był wówczas bliski bankructwa, Dell zaś mówił, że on na miejscu zarządu zamknąłby tę firmę.
Michael Dell powiedział wtedy, że gdyby on był prezesem Apple, zamknąłby firmę, a udziałowcom oddałby pieniądze, które by z niej zostały. Było jasne, że książka została już napisana, jej ostatni rozdział został już napisany, to była tylko kwestia rozdziałów pomiędzy.
Prezes Apple wspomina, że zrobił wówczas to, co zrobiłaby większość inżynierów - sporządził sobie listę plusów i minusów.
Strategic planning may also refer to control mechanisms used to implement the strategy once it is determined. In other words, strategic planning happens around the strategic thinking or strategy making activity.
While described sequentially below, in practice the two processes are iterative and each provides input for the other. Formulation ends with a series of goals or objectives and measures for the organization to pursue.
Who is the target customer for the organization's products and services?
Where are the customers and how do they buy? What is considered "value" to the customer? Which businesses, products and services should be included or excluded from the portfolio of offerings?
What is the geographic scope of the business? What differentiates the company from its competitors in the eyes of customers and other stakeholders? Which skills and capabilities should be developed within the firm? What are the important opportunities and risks for the organization? How can the firm grow, through both its base business and new business? How can the firm generate more value for investors? Implementation results in how the organization's resources are structured such as by product or service or geographyleadership arrangements, communication, incentives, and monitoring mechanisms to track progress towards objectives, among others.
Bruce Henderson  InHenry Mintzberg described the many different definitions and perspectives on strategy reflected in both academic research and in practice.
Tim Cook ciągle pamięta słowa Michaela Della, który uważał, że Apple należy zamknąć
Because of this, he could not point to one process that could be called strategic planning. Instead Mintzberg concludes that there are five types of strategies: Strategy as plan — a directed course of action to achieve an intended set of goals; similar to the strategic planning concept; Strategy as pattern — a consistent pattern of past behavior, with a strategy realized over time rather than planned or intended.
Where the realized pattern was different from the intent, he referred to the strategy as emergent; Strategy as position — locating brands, products, or companies within the market, based on the conceptual framework of consumers or other Strategia handlu Michael Cook a strategy determined primarily by factors outside the firm; Strategy as ploy — a specific maneuver intended to outwit a competitor; and Strategy as perspective — executing strategy based on a "theory of the business" or natural extension of the mindset or ideological perspective of the organization.
The first group is normative. It consists of the schools of informal design and conception, the formal planning, and analytical positioning. The second group, consisting of six schools, is more concerned with how strategic management is actually done, rather than prescribing optimal plans or positions. Prior tothe term "strategy" was primarily used regarding war and politics, not business.
He addressed fundamental strategic questions in a book The Practice of Management writing: " He recommended eight areas where objectives should be set, such as market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, worker performance and attitude, profitability, manager performance and development, and public responsibility. Andrews in into what we now call SWOT analysisin which the strengths and weaknesses of the firm are assessed in light of the opportunities and threats in the business environment.
Interactions between functions were typically handled by managers who relayed information back and forth between departments. Chandler stressed the importance of taking a long-term perspective when looking to the future.
In his ground breaking work Strategy and Structure, Chandler showed that a long-term coordinated strategy was necessary to give a company structure, direction and focus. He says it concisely, " structure follows strategy. He developed a grid that compared strategies for market penetration, product development, market development and horizontal and vertical integration and diversification. He felt that management could use the grid to systematically prepare for the future.
In his classic Corporate Strategy, he developed gap analysis to clarify the gap between the current reality and the goals and to develop what he called "gap reducing actions". This supported the argument for achieving higher market share and economies of scale. The idea of strategy targeting particular industries and customers i.
The prevailing concept in strategy up to the s was to create a product of high technical quality. If you created a product that worked well and was durable, it was assumed you would have no difficulty profiting. This was called the production orientation. Henry Ford famously said of the Model T car: "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants, so long as it is black.
The fallacy of the production orientation was also referred to as marketing myopia in an article of the same name by Levitt. This marketing concept, in the decades since its introduction, has been reformulated and repackaged under names including market orientation, customer orientation, customer intimacy, customer focus, customer-driven and market focus. Nature of strategy[ edit ] InProfessor Ellen Earle-Chaffee summarized what she thought were the main elements of strategic management theory where consensus generally existed as of the s, writing that strategic management:  Involves adapting the organization to its business environment; Is fluid and complex.
Change creates novel combinations of circumstances requiring Strategia handlu Michael Cook non-repetitive responses; Affects the entire organization by providing direction; Involves both strategy formulation processes and also implementation of the content of the strategy; May be planned intended and unplanned emergent ; Is done at several levels: overall corporate strategy, and individual business strategies; and Involves both conceptual and analytical thought processes.
Chaffee further wrote that research up to that point covered three models of strategy, which were not mutually exclusive: Linear strategy: A planned determination of goals, initiatives, and allocation of resources, along the lines of the Chandler definition above.
This is most consistent with strategic planning approaches and may have a long planning horizon. The strategist "deals with" the environment but it is not the central concern. Adaptive strategy: In this model, the organization's goals and activities are primarily concerned with adaptation to the environment, analogous to a biological organism. The need for continuous adaption reduces or eliminates the planning window.